Not something I've ever tried since I was a lad. Back then I constructed a box to attach at the eyepiece end of a telescope so that I could use a technique called solar projection. I used this to photograph a sequence documenting a partial eclipse of the Sun. The page Solar Observing tips by John Mcconnell FRAS
contains some wise words. Pay particular attention to his advice about staring at the Sun through a telescope or telephoto lens without using specialist filters.
As far as filters are concerned, I have successfully used BAADER AstroSolar™ Safety Film
for visual observing and I see no reason why it can't be adapted for photographic use but please read the technical specifications more closely than I have just done to make sure.
The big trick with the Sun is to recognise that while the intensity of the light can dazzle it's actually the unseen infra-red component which can blind you (and damage equipment) and that the retina doesn't contain pain sensors, as far as I am aware.
Another site which may be of interest is Thousand Oaks Optical
. Probably the most "full on" experience would be to use kit like that made by Coronado
. Check out this Sky & Telescope article
about using the Coronado PST. I haven't tried products from either manufacturer, I'm afraid.
I've just scratched the surface here but as you learn some of the terms you can do some more targeted Google searches.