Free Shipping on ALL Products
camera reviewsbest cameraslens reviewsphotography tipscamera forumvideo toursphotography bookssupport me
It is currently Mon Jul 28, 2014 6:38 pm

All times are UTC




Post new topic Reply to topic  [ 5 posts ] 
Author Message
PostPosted: Sun Nov 29, 2009 10:54 am 
Offline
Moderator
User avatar

Joined: Sun Nov 05, 2006 11:08 pm
Posts: 7923
Location: Germany
Ever wondered how a zoom works, optically?
I did, because the only optical formula I learned in school was that combined focal length of multiple lenses is the inverse of the sum of the inverse focal lengths of each single lens, i.e.: Add a 500mm close-up filter to a 200mm lens gives a 1/(1/500 + 1/200) = 143mm.
Sooooo, in any zoom with 13 to 23 optical elements the focal length should be fixed and can be calculated by the above formula. And this in turn proves that zooms cannot exist :shock: :roll:
Well yes, you didn't expect anything less crazy from me, did you?
-----
Reset!
-----
Now, the other thing to keep in mind is that many optical formula are only approximations of the real behavior of real glass in real life. E.g. some formula assume that you focus at infinity :idea:
Well, what happens if you focus closer? You have to extend the lens and thus the geometry of projecting the image on the sensor includes an extended distance of the front-lens from the sensor, which is as good as having a longer effective focal length! Things get larger (whether they are in focus or out-of-focus) if you focus closer. The only problem is to get those subjects sharp that you want in focus.
So in a very simplified explanation a zoom consists of two lens groups:
(A) The front lens-group projecting an image at a fixed focal length (and thus fixed magnification) into the zoom-lens. Let's call this the "primary" image. It's a miniature image of the reality in front of the lens.
(B) A rear lens-group that works like a macro on the primary image and produces a secondary image of varying magnifications by focusing closer or less close to the primary image. And as you can move the primary image (almost) as close or far away from the second lens-group by moving the front lens-group towards or away from the sensor it's easy to see how the second lens-group can focus at varying distances (and thus magnifications) on the primary image.

Well, that's in a nutshell how zooms work in principle! Fascinating, isn't it?

And I hope that you are not disappointed when I tell you that modern lens designs don't really project the primary image in front of the second lens-group but effectively inside it. So the second lens group is not like a miniature macro lens as you know it but still can magnify the primary image more or less depending on the distance to the front lens-group. The principle idea is still the same.

_________________
Thomas (beware: Nikon-fanboy and moderator!) My Lens Reviews, My Pictures, My Photography Blog
D800+assorted lenses


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject:
PostPosted: Sun Nov 29, 2009 11:31 am 
I always got a nose bleed after a long reading like this message i barely can't understand each and every word you type but i will take a this time to reply to sa (THANK YOU!!) cause it can really tell me or reminds me to study more cause i didn't understand many things in this PHOTOGRAPHY WORLD..

:D :) :D :) THANKS!


Top
  
 
 Post subject:
PostPosted: Sun Nov 29, 2009 11:48 am 
Quite right Thomas. We all should know a bit about this shouldn't we?

Since, as we all know, 'a picture paints a thousand words', the illustrations in the Wikipedia article might help visualising matters.

I pasted the moving one here. Watch as it zooms out. :shock:

Image

Yep! It is fascinating.

Ben
_________________
When in doubt..... Press the shutter.


Top
  
 
 Post subject:
PostPosted: Sun Nov 29, 2009 12:08 pm 
Offline
User avatar

Joined: Sun May 25, 2008 12:48 pm
Posts: 8022
Location: UK
Interesting... I hadn't given it thought before, even though I have attempted to read up on other areas.

This has also reignited my hopes of some day creating a focal reducer for DLSR lenses, where fast full frame lenses could be turned into effectively brighter shorter lenses for crop sensor only.

_________________
Canon DSLRs: 7D, 5D2, 1D, 600D, 450D full spectrum, 300D IR mod
Lenses: EF 35/2, 50/1.8, 85/1.8, 135/2+SF, 28-80 V, 70-300L, 100-400L, TS-E 24/3.5L, MP-E 65, EF-S 15-85 IS
3rd party: Zeiss 2/50 makro, Samyang 8mm fisheye, Sigma 150 macro, 120-300 f/2.8 OS, Celestron 1325/13
Tinies: Sony HX9V.


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject:
PostPosted: Sun Nov 29, 2009 1:11 pm 
You'd basically be undoing the cropping effect thereby concentrating the light on a smaller area. The FF focal length/image angle would then become the cropped focal length.

You'd think there is a reason why this isn't done yet. Assuming it isn't done yet. :)

Ben
_________________
When in doubt..... Press the shutter.


Top
  
 
Display posts from previous:  Sort by  
Post new topic Reply to topic  [ 5 posts ] 

All times are UTC


Who is online

Users browsing this forum: No registered users and 3 guests


You cannot post new topics in this forum
You cannot reply to topics in this forum
You cannot edit your posts in this forum
You cannot delete your posts in this forum

Search for:
Jump to:  

All words, images, videos and layout, copyright 2005-2012 Gordon Laing. May not be used without permission.
/ How we test / Best Cameras / Advertising / Camera reviews / Supporting Camera Labs

Webdesign by Alphabase IT
Powered by phpBB® Forum Software © phpBB Group