It ain't easy, is it, but half the fun is in the chase. I see from the EXIF data that your Jupiter shot used an exposure of 1/8th of a second and f/4.9 while your Moon shot used 1/50th of a second and f/4.9. The coloured fringing around Jupiter may be down to chromatic aberration from the lens and it may be down to slight mis-focussing. Quite possibly even a combination of the two. And then there is always the issue of atmospheric seeing.
For the Moon shot my guess, and it is only a guess, is that poor focus may be the main issue though ability of the lens to resolve the finest detail may also be relevant.
There is one final factor to take into account though you don't have any control over it. The sensor in your camera is, if I've got my sums right, under 5mm high which means that each pixel is very roughly about 1.7µm on a side. That means that your lens needs to be set to at least f/4 and preferably f/2.8 to avoid image softening due to diffraction - this would be true even if the lens is optically perfect. Using f/4.9, which is your widest aperture at the "tele" end of your zoom range, means that the Airy Disk
is going to be roughly four pixels across, thus limiting what is achievable even with a sharpening step in post-processing. Not what you wanted to hear, I know, but until you get your images down to a point where resolution is two or three pixels across after sharpening there is still hope.