Tokina makes a truly good 100mm zoom for macro. I started shooting DSLR with a pre-owned 400D (XTi) that my wife acquired from a co-worker, and part of the package was a Tokina 100mm Macro lens. As I learned more, I realized this lens is a true gem, for use as a macro lens, as well as general telephoto. I bought my Canon 100mm 2.8L Macro IS because I felt the need for weather-sealing and Image Stabilization, and had an assignment for which 100mm was the desired focal length.
For dedicated use as a macro lens, however, the Tokina works as well as the much more expensive L lens. Image Stabilization is not needed on a tripod, and most macro shooting is not done in the rain. I am not sure what your locality's price point would be for the non-L Canon 100mm 2.8, but that would be another candidate for a good macro lens.
There are macro lenses in the shorter focal lengths, but keep in mind that live subjects may not tolerate a lens being within inches of them. Macro lenses of less than 100mm focal length, to get an image of 1:1, usually do require getting very close, if I recall correctly.
I am no macro expert, by any means, and do not need exact 1:1 images, but do frequently shoot at very close range, for which I can use either the Canon or Tokina macro lens, but other lenses can get quite close to a subject, too. One lens that actually does quite well, at very close range, is
your humble 18-55mm kit zoom. I have seen local Crime Scene Unit officers
using the 18-55mm to shoot entire crime scenes, to include VERY close shots, and long exposures in low light.
I hope my rambling has not caused you to fall asleep by this point! Others with more actual 1:1 macro experience will probably post replies. I will also defer to those with actual experience to discuss telephoto zooms. My longest Canon zoom is an EF 28-135mm, which is probably not long enough for the sporting events you shoot.
One thing regarding clarity with your longer zoom: It may not be as limiting as you think. If motion blur is the cause of lack of clarity, you may not need a better lens. Assuming the sport is played outdoors, try shooting in Time Value mode, at 1/250th of a second, and see if that makes a difference. On a sunny day, 1/250th should provide plenty of light for a good exposure. If the sport involves really fast movements, some motions, such as a kick or swing, may still be a bit blurred. You may like that effect, but if not, try 1/500th.
For what it is worth, I have used my 100mm macro lenses for my nephew's outdoor sports. I have been able to get close enough for some good images.
Canon 5Ds R/7D2/7D/5D/40D/1D2N/M3; Nikon F6/D3s/D700/FM3A/1Dx/Coolpix A. Lens selection undergoing changes; some favorites: Zeiss 2/135 APO Sonnar, Canon 100mm f/2.8L Macro IS and 135L, Nikkor 14-24/2.8G and 24-70/2.8G.