the Sun is a blasted nuisance to photograph..lol. It's technically impossible to not have parts of it blow out - the only thing we can do is try and adjust how much around the disc is blown out as well.
If you ever watch CSI Miami - or if you're old enough to have watched "Miami Vice" you may notice that they always, always have this really heavy grad-filter with dense orange for the sky. You see that on every single post card from Miami as well...lol. I've been there for a few weeks and it's a completely white-blasted blur. To make matters worse they build a lot with white concrete..lol.
Anyway, getting a rather dense grad filter may help - but it needs some controlled set-up/composition to not look too obvious. (which it does sometimes in these TV shows).
I can't say that I have had any consistent success, but I have tried to:
- adjust exposure down
- spot meter for something away from the sun
- meter for the sun, to at least get the wash of light under control, but risking that other parts of the image is completely black
- reduce the aperture dramatically
Still, it's very much hit&miss (more of the latter) for me.